Dr. Manuel Gallardo,
Native son of Suchitoto, El Salvador
In this article information will be presented on one of my ancestors, -Dr. Manuel Gallardo, who was born in a poor village, but went on to become one of El Salvador's greatest historical figures.
The dates, names, accomplishments, and historical events introduced have been taken from published books, Catholic Church documents, and family oral tradition.
Dr. Manuel Gallardo was born on May 7, 1826 and he died on June 26, 1913. He was born in Suchitoto, El Salvador at the time when it was an underdeveloped village where practically all of the homes had thatch roofs. The name Suchitoto comes from the Nahuatl language and it means "place of flowers and birds."
Gallardo's parents were Jose Maria Gallardo, who was either from Suchitoto or its environs, and Josefa Antonia Aviles from Guatemala. According to Gallardo's autobiography, his mother was the sister of Jose Marcelo Aviles, the Catholic priest in Suchitoto. A baptismal record from the year 1788, shows that Gallardo's paternal aunt, Ana Micaela, was baptized in Suchitoto. It also shows that Gallardo's paternal grandparents were Pablo Gallardo (in that entry spelled Gayardo) and Manuela Santa Cruz.
During his lifetime, Gallardo learned to read and write from his uncle -the village priest, was given
the opportunity to study in San Salvador, -the capital city, graduated from universities in Guatemala and in Paris, France, and went on to become a mayor of the city of Santa Tecla (El Salvador), governor of the department of La Libertad, and president of the National Assembly. He performed the first cataract operation in El Salvador and was the founder of the "Colegio Santa Cecilia," which was the first Salesian high school to be founded in Central America.
Gallardo, who was also a rector of the National University, suffered the consequences of political strife in El Salvador. On at least one occasion he was exiled along with a former Salvadoran president, Rafael Campo, to Nicaragua in 1872. At that same time the Jesuit and the Capuchin priests were also exiled from the country.
In the introduction to his autobiography which is published in his grandson's Volume I of "Papeles
Historicos," Gallardo states, "Considering that I was born into a family of a humble background, without the resources to give me a good education; and having attained, in any case, my goal as a whole, even to the point of reaching a certain social importance, and even more importantly the respect and admiration of my fellow citizens, there must be by obvious reason a circumstance that explains such a transformation... I believe that having had the opportunities to intervene in public affairs of my country, I have found myself in favorable circumstances to observe at close range
certain incidences and to know personally the characters involved. I believe also that such
material may in the future be of some benefit to my children." (Translated from the Spanish by Jaime
Aside from his autobiography, Gallardo had a classification of plants in El Salvador that was
published in Volume II of Papeles Historicos by Miguel Angel Gallardo. This work is entitled Botanica (Estudios de Botanica). His doctoral thesis is published in Volume 4 of Papeles Historicos by the same above mentioned author.
Gallardo obtained his "licenciado" in medicine from the University of San Carlos in Guatemala on the 9th or 10th of July in 1850. Finally in July of 1857, Gallardo received his doctorate in medicine from the University of Paris (Facultad de Medicina de Paris). In the mid 1800s, it would have been a rare occurrence to find a Central American studying in that university.
Back in El Salvador, Gallardo married Cecilia Velasquez of Chalatenango, El Salvador. According to a Gallardo family oral tradition, Velasquez was the daughter of a Jewish man. In Gallardo's
autobiography, it is stated that his name was Manuel Antonio Evora. This author (Cader) believes that it is very probable Velasquez's parents were not married because in order to do so in El Salvador, Evora would have had to convert to Catholicism.
The present author wants to mention that his maternal grandfather was the son of son of Maria Gallardo, who in turn was the daughter of Dr. Manuel Gallardo. Thus my grandfather should have been born with the last name of Cea Gallardo. However his father, Paulino Cea Campo wanted his children to carry on the Campo last name, thus it was arranged for his children to be listed in church and civil records with the name Cea Campo. In a note about a Gallardo descendant in Volume 4 of the Papeles Historicos, that person is listed as Cea Campo Gallardo. This author's mother was also given the last name of Cea Campo.
Volume I of Papeles Historicos lists the grandchildren of the four sisters and one brother of Dr. Manuel Gallardo on page 28. It states as follows in Spanish, (1) being for the eldest sister, etc.:
"(1) Los nietos de Dna. Maria Josefa de Revelo fueron: Jesus Gallardo ( -1914); Francisco (1870-1949), Maria (1873- ), Carlota de Iraheta (1875-1942), Theresa de Martinez Suarez (1878- ), Cristina (1880-), y Jose (1885- ) Rivas Revelo; Salvador (1879- ) y Maria (1891- ) Revelo.
(2) Dna. Teresa Gallardo de Bosque murio en 1906 dejando tres nietos: Mercedes de Gallardo (1870-1944), Angel (1873-??) y Samuel (1875-1953) Mata Bosque.
(3) Concepcion Gallardo [permanecio soltera] murio en 1898.
(4) Dna. Isabel Gallardo de Vaquero tuvo los siguientes nietos: Alberto (1872-1949), Jose Roberto (1874-1953), Matilde de Yudice (1879-1928), Victoria de Sol (1881- ), Carmen (1883-1936), Maria (1886- ), y Adela (1890-1897) Parker; Luis (1892- ) y dos gemelitos, Bustamante.
(5) Dn. Vicente Gallardo tuvo como nietos: Ester, Alfredo, y Vicente Gallardo y Matilde, Fidelina, y Jose Maria Cabrera.
(6) Dna. Mercedes Gallardo de Fajardo (y despues de Artiga) murio en 1913 dejando los siguientes nietos: Angela de O'Byrne, Sara de Parker, Francisco, Mercedes, Maria, Ricardo y Guillermo Aguilar; Eduardo, Maria y Rafael Orellana; Concepcion de Dominguez, Matilde de
Montalvo, Arturo (1877- ), Enrique (1881-1942), Maria, Mercedes de Bach, Enriqueta de Lopez (1886- ), Juana de Frances (1890- ), y Carmen (1893- ) Araujo Fajardo."
Page 97 in Volume I of the Papeles Historicos states: "Nota final: el Dr. Manuel Gallardo murio en 1913 sin terminar sus "Recuerdos Autobiograficos," que le dictaba a su hijo Manuel Antonio Gallardo muerto en 1906. El Doctor Gallardo dejo los siguientes nietos: Matilde de Thouin (y despues de Villatoro) (1890- ), Jose Mauricio (1892- ), Isabel de Morales (1895- ), Luis Antonio (1898- ), Teresa (1900- ), Elisa (1903- ), y Carmen de Salazar (1906- ), Gallardo Duke; Cecilia de Caubet (1895- ), Rafael (1896-1944), Jose (1898-1945), Pedro (1899-1900), y Manuel (gemelos) (1899-1954), Paulino (1901- ), Luis (1904- ), y Angela de Alvarado (1906- ) Cea Campo; Victor Manuel (1896-1954), Jose Joaquin (1899-1899), Jose (1901-1945), Francisco (1904-1927), Miguel Angel (1908- ), y Ricardo (1914- ) Gallardo Alvarado.
There is more genealogical information on the descendants of Dr. Manuel Gallardo on page 19 of
Volume 4 of the Papeles Historicos. Since the above names were published, several of those descendants have died. This author believes that it is possible that the grandson of Gallardo's eldest sister, Salvador Revelo, is the same Salvador Revelo who was a priest whose signature appears on many church documents in El Salvador. Other Gallardo family members include Angel Vaquero who was Vice Minister of the Department of Agriculture, and Cecilia Gallardo de Cano, a former
Minister of Education, both in El Salvador.
Anderson, Thomas R.: "El Salvador 1932," second edition in a Spanish translation, 1982. (This book has some information on family structure in El Salvador and other Latin American countries.)
Flemion, Philip F.: "Historical Dictionary of El Salvador," 1972.
Gallardo, Miguel Angel: "Papeles Historicos," Vol. I published in 1954, and Vol. 4 published in 1975.
Guerrero C, Dr. Julian N: "100 Biografias Centroamericanas (Tomo II)," Managua, Nicaragua, 1973.